Author Topic: Dual Boot Linux  (Read 5845 times)

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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #15 on: February 21, 2014, 08:42:43 pm »
I think I'm 90% with you.... I think you lost me on that last two paragraphs....

Ok... let's forget windows and say I take 250 for that...

So now I have 250G for Linux.

I'll go 25G for each distro. then I want what 10G SWAP? so that leaves me 190G for a shared /home between two distros.

You really only need 2G to 4G swap if your machine has 4G of RAM.

By the way, in the dim and distant past there used to be a rule of thumb that you should configure swap to be twice your RAM size. This is no longer the case. In fact you can configure 0 swap space if you think you will never fill up your RAM at once. Swap space is only used when real memory is exhausted and, to be honest, it's something you really don't want to be using if you can help it as it will slow everything down. There's no harm in configuring it, or in configuring too much, but there's also not much point.

So I would configure 4G on the basis it should (hopefully) rarely, if ever, be used, and if it does 4G is plenty. If you ever get to the point where 4G is not enough, you need a system with more RAM in!

So, yes, 25G for each distro should be fine, leaving 196G of space for home. That's a crap-load of space.

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/home will have my user names.  Let's say I make TB-Sol and TB-Kal.

The user's home directories (and hence all the user created data) is stored in /home. If you created these two users you would have two directories:

/home/tb-sol
/home/tb-kal

However, the actual user account details you need for user login are stored outside of this in a system directory**

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So.... if all hell breaks looks I restore the distros no prob... and I make an image of /home and that saves all my data, all my settings, email, progs, etc...?

Correct, except for the user account details (this might sound like a nasty problem, but it really isn't).

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So a restore would be.

Re-install Solyd, re-install Kali, write latest image of /home saved to some other drive to the partition for /home and I'm back to where I was?????

Very nearly. You need to recreate the user accounts. This is very simple to do. The following commands should do it (comments after the #):

sudo useradd tb-sol -u <tb-sol_uid> -p <password>   # create new tb-sol user
sudo useradd tb-kal -u <tb-kal_uid> -p <password>   # create new tb-kal user


Note the <password> doesn't have to match the previous password, it's whatever you want to use from now on. The "uid" is a unique number which represents the user within the system. Normally you don't need to care about it, but in the case of a system with more than one Linux and shared partitions, you do need to care, because the mapping from username to uid has to be the same on both Linux setups.

So, when you first create the users on (say) the Kali Linux, make a note of the uids for each user, and then specify the same ones when creating the users on the SolydK Linux. If you ever have to rebuild it, then use these same uids.

By the way, I appreciate that you may have separate accounts here for the different Linux environments for personal/organisational reasons, but there are few reasons why you cannot have a single user account, shared between both setups if that's what you want.

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I suppose if I screw up the initial install I just wipe the partitions and start over until I get it right. I intend to make a notebook as to what I'm doing.

Absolutely. If you haven't got any user data yet, then there's nothing to lose.

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BTW:... 25G OS Part. .. any problem with expanding them later on if needed? I assume a good partition software exists? I would rather go small and have room for data.... Although I can always hang a drive on for data or a USB stick.

It's not trivial, but it's not that hard either. The way I have done it in the past is to shrink the /home partition, and to create a new partition from the recovered space. I then move one of the main system directories into it, so that /var, /usr/ or /opt are moved to a new partition, freeing up space on the root partition.

Cheers,

Keith

** Technical detail

The login details on most Linux systems default to a system directory called /etc

Within /etc are two main files:

/etc/passwd - actually a misnomer as it no longer holds any password data, it does hold things like username, home directory and uid
/etc/shadow - holds a hashed version of the password
/etc/shadow

There is also another file /etc/group which holds details of group memberships.

These are all text files, which are editable, and can have information cut and paste from them. To copy a user login from one machine to another it's perfectly possible to cut and paste the appropriate lines from /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow on one machine and paste them into the equivalents on the other machine.

A good tutorial for this is here: http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/understanding-etcpasswd-file-format/
« Last Edit: February 21, 2014, 09:41:00 pm by Majik »
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #16 on: February 21, 2014, 09:27:36 pm »
This sounds like I better get it right the first time..... I also intend to fire up another desktop and maybe I will play with that one... but if I actually get this laptop rolling... I don't think I will want to take a chance on hosing it unless I have to. Maybe I'll go 40G and call it a day.... if 50g is overkill I no I don't that.

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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #17 on: February 28, 2014, 12:39:22 am »
Ok, I'm looking at video and it looks like this guy is using a prog named G-Part.

The problem is he has basically two blank partitions. But it looks like jus ta matter of sliding a slider to size and press go...

Anyone know if it is safe to resize a windows part with that?

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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #18 on: February 28, 2014, 08:36:38 am »
Ok, I'm looking at video and it looks like this guy is using a prog named G-Part.

The problem is he has basically two blank partitions. But it looks like jus ta matter of sliding a slider to size and press go...

Anyone know if it is safe to resize a windows part with that?

gparted

www.gparted.org

"Safe" is relative.

Should it work? yes!

Would I advise taking a backup or image of the partition first? Hell yes!

http://gparted.org/faq.php#faq-6

I will mention that I've resized Windows partitions a few times using gparted, and never had any problems. However, I could just be lucky!

There are also a couple of "gotchas" that you need to be aware of. Rather than discussing them here, I will refer to this article: http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/windows-vista/using-gparted-to-resize-your-windows-vista-partition/

There's other info in the gparted FAQ I linked above.

Cheers,

Keith
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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #19 on: February 28, 2014, 08:53:16 am »
Also:

http://docs.kali.org/installation/dual-boot-kali-with-windows

This talks about using gparted.

As you are considering kali. Note that this suggests using a single partition for Kali as it assumes dual boot. If you are triple booting you may wish to separate /home and create an empty partition for solydk as previously discussed, assuming you install kali before Solydk.

I'm also wondering, given the specific nature of kali, whether you would be better just running it from a USB pen drive and dual-booting Solydk. Unless you expect to spend a significant amount of time doing penetration testing or similar, I wonder whether your using of Kali is enough to warrant the hassle of having it as another installed OS.

But, of course, that's up to you.

By the way, you may wish to read this review of Solydk, especial with respect to the installer, which uses gparted: http://www.dedoimedo.com/computers/solydk-review.html

Cheers,

Keith
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #20 on: February 28, 2014, 04:23:01 pm »
Well,,, I fumbled my way around and got a usb stick to boot...

My BIOS or whatever it called these days -had- two possible boot options. I -think- one was a recovery part.

Anyway... got SolydK installed and I agree with everything that guy pointed out... especially the map/clock and the 'I hope this works' when I click go feeling... but ... it all went well until.... reboot.

It locked. I had to shut power then pulled USB stick.... I have since found this.....

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Warning: Windows 8 implements a fast shutdown feature that helps speed up shutdown and startup operations on a single-boot computer. Unfortunately, this feature can cause filesystem corruption if it's used on a multi-boot computer. You can disable the feature by launching an Administrator Command Prompt window and typing powercfg /h off in it.

Right now I have fumbled my way to having a Windows Boot or an antheros<?> boot which doesn't actually boot anything.

Sooo... I stuck the USB back in and it booted an I saw the word GRUB flash by and SolyK booted... problem is.. I don't know if it was running off the USB or the hard drive. At any rate... I can't get anything but Windows to actually boot. It's still there. Teh partitions worked fine. GPART seems very strong but there is one thing I can't figure how to do... and I saw messages about this dating back to 2006.

Imagine this...
PartA | PartB, Unpartitioned1, PartC, Unpartitioned2.

Now.... Partition the Unpartitioned1 into PartsD and E using it all up. Now try to -expand- partE by what I thought would be using the available area of UnPart2... but it can't be done.

It's like all can be shrunk easily. But once they are X size they can't go bigger unless they are immediately followed by UnPart... IOW,,, I'm pretty sure I was able to -expand- PartC

Or to say it another way... If you have Parts --in the middle-- they are of limited size... but I expected them to have full availability of all unused space.

There must be some method to make things contiguous and thus available for expansion.

So anyway... I'm close but no cigar.

--- forgot to mention... at this point I think I can find solutions to just about everything... even if it meant doing a clean install of Win8.1 from DVD.... but that BIOS is scary.... I honestly have no clue what it's doing but apparently new OSs use this new setup and have something like .efi files or something? That tell it how to boot... I'm actually afraid if I were to try to do a clean install I would screw the how deal up.

Maybe that link you posted will help I haven't read that yet.
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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #21 on: February 28, 2014, 06:02:34 pm »
I will mention, I'm not expert on UEFI. I just know about it and have stumbled through a dual-boot setup on a laptop which had it.

I have to say if you asked me to do it again, I'm not sure I could easily.

Cheers,

Keith
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Offline misterg

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #22 on: February 28, 2014, 06:13:10 pm »
Just remind me what was wrong with Windows 7?

 :P

Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #23 on: February 28, 2014, 06:31:04 pm »
LOL... yeah.. in my case it didn't come with a new laptop attached.

If I can get that classic look installed I think I can deal with the windows side of things.

I really feel lost on this dual boot deal though.. Not the OS side of things.. just the mechanical part of having the hardware switch gears.

There is a line in the BIOS that says make a new boot point

fsx:\path\filename.efi   -- I'm thinking there must be a file named something like solydK.efi or solydkboot.efi   or maybe I should look for Grub.efi

The problem is... I don't know what to look for because I'm not familiar with Grub or Linux AND I have to boot into Linux to start snooping around to see what might be a good file to link to.

and I don't know if fsx: is just word like path and filename or if really has to say fsx:   or is it sdb9: something something ??

It's like I could be standing in the same room with the solution and not even know it.

I think I'm very close .. in fact I think I'm so close that if someone knew what they were doing they could knock it right out.
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #24 on: March 01, 2014, 03:57:27 am »
YEEEHA!!!!!!!!





this guy is the shiznit..... http://www.rodsbooks.com/refind/installing.html

Man alive... One day I'm going to take a month off, sit on the beach and write a novel about how I once got a PC to dual boot an OS.... LOL .... man I can not believe they have done this.

Anyway.... she's rockin' and rollin'

It's off to Linuxland now.....
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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #25 on: March 01, 2014, 10:32:43 am »
Excellent!

And that website is a really great find. That will be useful when I get time to educate myself properly on how UEFI works.

Cheers,

Keith
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #26 on: March 01, 2014, 12:21:45 pm »
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #27 on: March 01, 2014, 10:25:04 pm »
Oh... btw.... what about Virus protection on Linux?

Also I need a list of tools that are regarded as the goto items.

Like winRAR and 7zip,,, the little addon things .... What are the counterparts in Linux?

There must be a few Linux progs that everyone uses as a best practice sort of thing.

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Offline Majik

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #28 on: March 01, 2014, 10:56:27 pm »
Oh... btw.... what about Virus protection on Linux?

Generally, you don't need it. There aren't many viruses on Linux, and the default security model and the way may of the apps are written tend to make it more difficult for viruses to sneak in.

For instance, most things which can seriously damage your system need root access. On a modern Linux desktop distro, that will straight away pop up a box asking for a password, and that will normally raise alarm bells if it was an action the user wasn't expecting. Windows 7 has adopted a similar model, but Linux has been like it pretty much from the start.

Also most software installs are from the distro's own repository. This is software which is normally trusted and signed.

Also, apps have, historically, been more cautious about allowing dangerous operations to take place. Most Linux email clients, for instance, will not allow code to be executed from attachments, but this was commonplace in Windows email clients until relatively recently. In fact I saw a report which suggested that more than 90% of malware and viruses on Windows platforms between 1997 and 2003 were spread as email attachments. This was mainly due to people using Outlook and Outlook Express on their PCs and these, at the time, were dreadfully insecure.

A lot were also spread by IM and P2P clients which allowed executables to be passed around.

And, of course, most of the software is Open Source. This means anyone can inspect the source code and spot security issues. And for commonly used apps, that sort of inspection goes on all the time.

Of course, there are attack vectors and the worst thing you can claim is that a system is "invulnerable" to security issues. A lot of smug Mac users think this, and yet the Apple stuff has often been the easiest to break in to. Modern vulnerabilities include browser plugins which don't require any special system permissions in order to do nasty things.

There are anti-virus apps on Linux, such as the free ClamAV, but this mostly detects Windows viruses to prevent you accidentally forwarding them to other people. In my view people tend to rely too much on AntiVirus software, and none of it is 100% effective. The best defence is to be careful what you do, and to research what you install before you do it. If you only install apps from the distro's on repositories, then you are normally pretty safe.
Also I need a list of tools that are regarded as the goto items.

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Like winRAR and 7zip,,, the little addon things .... What are the counterparts in Linux?

Most of these are installed by default on desktop distros with desktop apps like Ark. Rar isn't that common on Linux, but you can get a version if you need it (search for "rar" in your distro's software repository or enter "sudo apt-get install rar" in a terminal).

Everything else? Well it depends what you want to do. I normally find most of the things I want from system utilities installed by default. Where I do want something I normally install as and when I need. In most cases I know what I want, but in your case you probably wont. So my suggestion here is if you want to do something specific, either Google it, or ask here and I'm sure we can tell you how.

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There must be a few Linux progs that everyone uses as a best practice sort of thing.

As I said, in general most of them I would expect to be there. I use Linux for music a fair bit, so I have a set of stuff that others wouldn't have installed. Libre Office, of course, is a good one to have. A good text editor (take your pick, but gedit, kwrite and kate are good ones). CD Burning: my fave is k3b which also does CD audio ripping. Music player? Amarok, Banshee, Rhythmbox, Clementine...

For passwords I use KeePassX which is also cross platform.

Instant Messenger, of course you can get Skype, but there's also Pidgin and Kopete.

Email: Evolution, Kontact/Kmail and others. I prefer Kmail but that's personal preference.

Cheers,

Keith
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Offline TB-AV

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Re: Dual Boot Linux
« Reply #29 on: March 01, 2014, 11:15:07 pm »
Ok,,, now when you say repository.... you mean on my PC... or do you mean somewhere else.

So basically.. everything I need -should- be on my pc and that's why someone designed this distro?

and if I want something off the wall like software define radio or spectrum analyzer I just go look for it like I normally would.

But all my basic needs are built in......

So far it looks pretty good.... took me a bit to get my wireless connection. I first typed in the SSID and password bu tit would pop up an encription deal and then say I din't have a key and to make one bu tI don;t know how to make one. So finally I did something and saw my wireless network which is hidden and I selected it, typed SSID and pass and fired right up.

The only other thing I did which I can't quite figure out....

You see the last YT video in this page. Look at the screen. No need to run video. You see there is a folder there. It says there are no files in this folder or something to that effect. Well somehow I closed it.... and I have no idea what it was or how to get it back. It's probably no big deal and to be honest it seemed in a the way, but I never actually got around to knowing what it was. this touch pad and mouse click gets a mind of it's own and things will fly off the screen some times before I realize I done it.

I'll tell you what else is odd.. on that now missing window.. the little control panel used to spring out from right and I did something and it ended up on left....... and I think that's when I killed it all together.

You can see the little control panel in next to last vid still shot.

http://solydxk.com/get-support/tutorials/

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